Peptide usually refers to a compound composed of 10-100 amino acids linked by peptide bonds. It has a history of more than 100 years since its discovery, and it has been used as a medicine for more than 70 years. Peptides are naturally occurring biologically active substances in organisms. There have been tens of thousands of species found in organisms so far. Peptides are involved in many physiological functions in the body as signal molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and cell growth factors.
Peptide drugs include peptides or their modifications used for disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. According to their functions, peptide drugs can be divided into peptide vaccines, anti-tumor peptides, anti-viral peptides, peptide-oriented drugs, cytokine mimic peptides, antibacterial active peptides, diagnostic peptides, etc. They are mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, tumors, asthma, allergies, hepatitis, AIDS and other diseases.
In recent years, as a key area of biomedical innovation and research and development, peptide drugs have always maintained a good development prospect. Peptide drugs account for a relatively small share of the global biomedicine market, but they are developing rapidly. In 2019, the global peptide drug market exceeded 30 billion U.S. dollars, with an average annual compound growth rate of about 10%.
In terms of regional distribution of the global market, the market for peptide drugs is mainly concentrated in developed countries such as North America and Europe. Large global pharmaceutical companies have also increased their deployment of peptide drugs, such as Roche, Pfizer, Sanofi, etc., have increased the research and development of peptide drugs, and have harvested many listed drugs through acquisitions and mergers and acquisitions. However, with the expiration of a large number of patented peptide drugs from 2015 to 2019 and a large number of generic drugs on the market, emerging economies such as China and India will compete with European and American countries for part of the market.
There are about 100 peptide drugs on the market worldwide, mainly focusing on the treatment of chronic diseases such as tumors, diabetes, immune regulation, and cardiovascular diseases, accounting for more than 80% of the total. The top 8 blockbuster peptide drugs have a combined sales of more than US$18 billion, including Trulicity, Victoza, Ozempic, Octreotide, Copaxone, Teriparatide, Goserelin, Lupron.
Top 8 Blockbuster Peptide Drugs
Eli Lilly's Trulicity (dulaglutide) sold US$5.068 billion in 2020. Dulaglutide is a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, which has been on the market in the USA since 2014 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Novo Nordisk's two blockbuster products, Semaglutide and Liraglutide, have combined sales of approximately US$7.7 billion in 2020. Novo Nordisk's total revenue in 2020 is 20.31 billion U.S. dollars, of which diabetes and weight loss drugs revenue are 17.28 billion U.S. dollars (+5%), accounting for 85%. Mainly driven by semaglutide, the company's global diabetes market share has increased to 29%. In 2020, the sales of semaglutide (oral + subcutaneous injection) reached 3.755 billion US dollars (+105%).
Huateng Pharma, as a professional pharma intermediates supplier, is always dedicated to being your most reliable partner to provide high purity pharma intermediates. We can provide peptide drugs Semaglutide and Liraglutide intermediates with GMP standard.
Enhance the stability of peptide drugs in a variety of ways. The stability of peptide drugs is an important factor restricting their development. In order to enhance the stability of the peptide structure, researchers are committed to the optimization of stability by modifying the structure of the peptide. Modification of peptides mainly includes the following methods: transform the peptide into a cyclic peptide, modify the amino acid backbone, insert unnatural amino acids, replace individual amino acids, and conjugate with polyethylene glycol, lipids, and proteins. In turn, peptide drugs have prolonged half-life, increased stability, and reduced injection frequency.
Huateng Pharma provides custom PEGylated conjugates and PEGylation services for peptides. As a global partner, we can supply commercial quantities of high quality functionalized PEGs, which are essential for your PEGylated therapeutic peptides.
Optimize the administration of peptide drugs. Oral administration: Combine peptide drugs with penetration enhancers to increase the permeability of the intestinal mucosa, so that the peptide drugs can quickly pass through the intestinal mucosa and be absorbed into the blood to realize the application of oral peptide drugs. But overall, the effect of oral administration is lower than that of injection. In 2019, Novo Nordisk's oral semaglutide was approved for marketing. As the only oral GLP-1 drug, it has had an impact on the market. However, according to clinical data, the bioavailability of oral semaglutide is only about 1%, and it is subject to various restrictions when taken. Nevertheless, with continuous breakthroughs in research, oral peptide drugs are still an important research direction. Injection administration: It is mainly to use polymer materials to wrap the peptides, block the contact between the peptides and the protease, and protect the peptides. In addition to the injection microspheres that have been used now, there is also research on embedding peptides in liposomes to achieve a sustained release effect through intravenous injection.